istorie9Epoca contemporana

The social political life of the city during and right after the end of the war knew an obvious worsening, which made possible the development of the left current, which was noted especially with the return from the frontline of Vantus Károly who will resume the position of first secretary of the Social Democratic Party and with the presence in Oradea of the communist Béla Kun, a close collaborator of Trotsky. In fact, on 7th December 1918, the Communists of Oradea organized a meeting simultaneously in the large hall of the city hall and at the theatre against the decision from Alba Iulia in which many demobilized soldiers participated, kept in the city at the expense of the mayor’s office.  More measures were implemented to prevent the penetration of Romanian army in the city, but the short visit of General Henri Mathias Berthelot on the Sunday, 29th December, raised a lot the morals of Romanian soldiers. The constitution in Hungary of the Communist government run by Béla Kun will agitate even more the spirits in Oradea. Immediately he took the decision to create the ”red army”, all the elements which endangered the objectives of the government were shut up, a whole series of restrictive measures were taken, it was issued by decree the obligation to work of all the citizens of the city.

Because the situation in the city had become critical, following the confrontations between the ”reds” (Communist) and ”white” (anti-Communists) on 19th to 20th April 1919 the new management of the city led by the mayor Rimer Károly appealed to the Romanian commandment of 6th Division from Tileagd asking them to enter the city and restore peace. In the morning of the first day of Easter, on 20th April, the city leaders came out to meet the commanders of Romanian army. General Traian Moșoiu, accompanied by his superior generals entered the city hall around 14.00 p.m., proceeding thus to the official takeover of the management of the city. Convened the next day after the entry of Romanian troops in Oradea and for the first time in conditions of legality and safety, the Romanian National Council of Oradea went on to take measures of strict necessity for the city, designed to assure the continuity of social life, order and supply with the necessary things for the daily living.

istorie11By the royal decree no. 2465 of 25th September 1925, Oradea was declared municipality, and in 1930 the Consultative Heraldics Commission established the coat of arms of Oradea municipality, with the following appearance: on a blue shield with a Latin silver cross held on the left by a winged archangel, with a golden nimbus, and on the right a golden lion, crowned, raised in two paws, with bifurcated tail and red tongue. The shield is stamped by a mural crown with seven towers.

In the whole interwar period the highest administrative authority of the city was the mayor, helped by a mayor aide. The decisions taken on the account of the city were discussed and taken by a deliberative body called the Interim Council from which the permanent Delegation was appointed. The general secretariat of the mayor’s office had in its subordination several departments: the administrative department, the financial economic department, the cultural department, the public instruction and social assistance department, communal police and industrial authority and the claims department.

As for the structure of population by nationalities, according to the census of 1930 the Romanian population had reached a percentage of 27,7%, the Hungarian population had reached 51%, and the Jewish population had reached 17,7%. Other nationalities, though poorly quoted, were German, Rroma, Ruthenian, Ukrainian etc.

The outbreak of the Second World War will bring Oradea serious prejudices which the population will feel acutely. Ever since the integration of Transylvania in the Romanian administration, the Hungarian party initiated a campaign of combat and removal of decisions of Trianon. In time they even passed to concrete subversive actions, in Oradea were discovered members of the organization Rongyos Gárda (Ragged Guard), and in the spring of 1939 in the vicinity of the border with Romania were organized local departments of the group Önvédelmi Szervezet  (Self-Defence Organization) whose objectives on the Romanian territory were the attack if necessary of regular troops, the organization of assaults against important personalities, the organization of paramilitary and espionage formations.

istorie10The events during the summer of 1944 created to Romania favourable conditions to the direction of weapons against Germany and the release of North-West Transylvania. In short time after finding out the new turn of events in Romania after 23rd August, the Hungarian government took exceptional measures for North-Western Transylvania:  the area was declared territory of war, any demonstrations, public meetings were prohibited etc. At the end of September the Romanian and Soviet troops arrived near Oradea.

Going straight ahead from Beiuș, Tudor Vladimirescu Division passed through Hidișel and Băile Felix arriving at the gates of the city on 27th September. Two days earlier, aware of the imminence of a Romanian Soviet attack the Hungarian authorities evacuated the city hall and left the city. The release of the city was prepared by the hard fights which were fought south of city in the first days of October in the area of towns Păușa, Leș, Nojorid, Sânicolau Român, Berechiu and Roit. The decisive attack on Oradea took place on 12th October. There participated Tudor Vladimirescu Division, 3 Munte Division, 337 Soviet Division and tanks and cavalry units of general Pliev.

On 11th March 1944 in the whole North-Western Transylvania the Soviet military administration was instated, and on 9th March 1945, after the setting up of Groza government, the Romanian administration was established, which unfortunately inaugurated the age of Stalinist Communism. In the administration Communists were appointed, while the representatives of historical parties were marginalized, many arrests were made, the representatives of churches were banished etc.

1970-patratAmong the achievements of the Communist age we must mention the opening of the construction site of the plant Alumina, the opening of many light industry enterprises (Solidaritatea, Arta, Crișul, Crișana), the commissioning of State Agricultural Enterprises Sere and Avicola, the building of many blocks, hospitals etc. Unfortunately the forced industrialization policy also had several negative effects, leading eventually to a real economic crisis – with deep implications in all the sectors of public life – the shortages and deprivations of all kinds made more difficult the life of inhabitants who in December 1989 manifested their dissatisfaction by vast protests directed against the Communist regime. Then, the municipal organization of National Rescue Front was set up and took over the management of the city.

The city is twinned with a large number of cities from all over the globe with which it maintains important links in various fields: Debrecen (Hungary), Linkoping (Sweden), Coslada (Spain), Givatayim (Israel), Mantova (Italy), Ceyrat (France). In 2003 it signed a Friendship Agreement with Ivano-Frankvisk (Ukraine), and in 2006 it signed a Collaboration Agreement with Montbéliard (France).